Today, I would like to talk about new implemented firewall in Fedora (18 and above, I guess) which is called FirewallD or Dynamic Firewall. FirewallD is more powerful and flexible compared to old static firewall. In static firewall, you list a set of rules and then firewall reads them by restarting your firewall, however, in new FirewallD you apply modified rules without restarting firewall. In fact, FirewallD does not use netfilter rules in the traditional sense. In other words, you cannot use the iptables command to add firewall rules for the Firewalld daemon. They conflict with each other. And, of course you can use the old iptables firewall, however, you have to first disable FirewallD which is not a good idea in my opinion.
You can use either firewall-config tool (GUI version) or firewall-cmd command (command line version) to set up your firewall. Systemd manages FirewallD by using firewalld.service unit file. If you don't know what are systemd and unit files, take a look at these links: http://linuxconfau.blip.tv/file/4696791/ and http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Systemd
Let's take a look at inside firewalld.service Figure 1. I tried to put all explanations inside Figure 1.
By the way, D-Bus is a free and open-source inter-process communication system, allowing multiple, concurrently-running computer programs (processes) to communicate with one another.
FirewallD uses zones. A network zone defines the level of trust for network connections. Most zones are mutable, but there are also immutable zones. Immutable zones are not customizable and there is no way to overload them. These are the different zones:
drop (immutable) Deny all incoming connections, outgoing ones are accepted.
block (immutable) Deny all incoming connections, with ICMP host prohibited messages issued.
trusted (immutable) Allow all network connections
public Public areas, do not trust other computers
external For computers with masquerading enabled, protecting a local network
dmz For computers publicly accessible with restricted access.
work For trusted work areas
home For trusted home network connections
internal For internal network, restrict incoming connections
Default zone is defined in /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf. Figure 2.
Location of default and fallback zone files (in xml format) are in /usr/lib/firewalld/zones Figure 2.
Zone configurations are located in /etc/firewalld/zones.
firewall-cmdfirewall-cmd is a command line to set your firewall with so many options. There are two options to save your changes. One is Permanent and the other one is runtime. Runtime changes are deleted after reload or restart. Permanent option will be there even after reload/restart/reboot.
Now, let's try few examples (Figure 3):
firewall-cmd --get-zones --> List your zones
firewall-cmd --get-services --> List all supported zones under the current zone
firewall-cmd --get-icmptype --> List icmp types
firewall-cmd --get-default-zone --> List default zone
firewall-cmd --set-default-zone=zone --> To set your default zone
firewall-cmd --get-active-zones --> Print currently active zones
firewall-cmd --get-zone-of-interface=interface --> Print the name of the zone the interface is bound to or no zone.
firewall-cmd --list-all-zones --> List everything added for or enabled in all zones.
firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-all --> List everything added for or enabled in public zone
firewall-cmd --zone=public --query-interface=ens33
firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --query-interface=ens33
firewall-cmd [--permanent] --add-service postgresql --> To add services to the zone
firewall-cmd --query-service=postgresql --> To check if the service is enabled for a zone
cat /etc/services | grep postgresql
iptables-save | grep 5432
firewall-cmd --remove-service postgresql --> To remove services from the zone
firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --add-port=22/tcp --> To add ssh port 22
firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --query-port=22/tcp --> To query the added port 22
firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --remove-port=22/tcp --> To remove port 22 in dmz zone
firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --add-masquerade --timeout=30 --> Enable IPv4 masquerade for zone. If zone is omitted, default zone will be used. If a timeout is supplied, masquerading will be active for the amount of seconds.
If you want to use custom rules, you can use --direct option. The direct options give a more direct access to the firewall.
Direct options should be used only as a last resort when it's not possible to use for example --add-service=service.
firewall-cmd --direct --get-chains ipv4 filter --> Get all chains added to table filter, in this case, as a space separated list. This option concerns only chains previously added with --direct
firewall-cmd --direct --get-rules ipv4 filter INPUT --> Get all rules added to chain INPUT in table filter as a newline separated list of the priority and arguments.
firewall-cmd --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter INPUT 0 -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT --> Add a rule with the arguments args to chain INPUT in table filter with priority 0. The priority is used to order rules. Priority 0 means add rule on top of the chain, with a higher priority the rule will be added further down. Rules with the same priority are on the same level and the order of these rules is not fixed and may change. If you want to make sure that a rule will be added after another one, use a low priority for the first and a higher for the following.
firewall-cmd --direct --get-rules ipv4 filter INPUT
firewall-cmd --direct --remove-rule ipv4 filter INPUT 0 -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT --> to remove rule
firewall-cmd --direct --get-rules ipv4 filter INPUT
If you want a comprehensive list of options, please refer to man page. I read Ferdora 19's man page and it's much nicer than before in terms of explanation. And that's all. Hope you enjoyed.